So you want data. But, you would like to use tools that you are already familiar with. That way, you can focus on areas of most interest to you: analysis.
Let’s consider the example of someone who is looking for air pollution information in Sydney, Australia. Australia has an data catalogue at data.gov.au. But it’s likely that the catalogue will be hard to search through, may be incomplete, and may only give us the phone number or email address of someone to talk to. Google spends hundreds of millions of dollars a year indexing the web. Let’s make use of that.
To start with, let’s see how close we get just with:
sydney air pollution
Actually, we get pretty close. The first link takes us to the relevant government department’s web visualisation tool of Sydney’s “Air Quality Index” (AQI). Within one click, I could get to a web table with live data in it. But, it seems impossible to get to the raw data. By inspecting the HTML source, it turns out that the table is living within an
iframe to airquality.environment.nsw.gov.au. This seems to be a bespoke web application that doesn’t provide access to its raw data.
Maybe someone has created a dump of the AQI?
The first change we could make to our query is by adding a filetype operator. To look for Excel spreadsheets, we simply add:
If we would like to include .xlsx files, we can use brackets and a pipe character. To Google, this says, “either is fine”.
(filetype:xls | filetype:xlsx)
The first link is a World Bank source, which provides information about countries’ air pollution. While we may not have the source that we wanted, we have some raw data to play with as a fallback.
The problem with Excel spreadsheets is that they tend to have lots of formatting issues. Columns are inconsistent. There may be images or explanatory text. These characteristics occur because spreadsheets are created by people for people. They’re made easier for people to read, which tends to make it harder for machines to read. But, there is something better, CSV.
CSV is a great format. It’s plain text. It’s easy. It’s readable by everything. Most importantly though, it’s almost always written by & for machines. This makes it very easy for you to do analysis with. So how do we find CSV files? Same as before
Another format that’s worth mentioning here is TSV. Exactly the same as CSV, but tend to be slightly easier for people to read. You may as well look for both:
(filetype:csv | filetype:tsv)
This will return many results that look they do on your hard drive:
http://www.example.com/results.csv. Unfortunately, many dynamic websites do not use file extensions. Instead, they will do something like this:
filetype: operator will miss these ones, because the search engine doesn’t think they look like files. To improve our coverage, let’s introduce
(filetype:csv | filetype:tsv | inurl:csv | inurl:tsv)
Magic. Our search queries are now able to find those files. Beware though, that
inurl: will result in several false positives. However, it will also result in much more data. Including data from several countries that we’re not really interested in. How do we change that?
site: operator. The interesting thing about
site: is that it’s useful for more than sites. We can use it to restrict results to particular level domains. If we were only interested in Australian results, then we could ask Google to filter them for us:
We can actually get far more specific. We we’re interested in government sources, just ask for them.
One final operator that is useful to mention is
ext:. One of the problems with
filetype: is that it tends to perform poorly with more specialised file formats. These include XML files, Atom feeds, ESRI Shapefiles and other industry-specific formats.
Let’s return to the problem at hand. We would like to receive a machine-readable dump of the API from Sydney, Australia. Ideally, we will get our data from a government source. That means we need to construct a query that combine many of the approaches that I’ve mentioned in this post.
sydney air pollution (filetype:csv | filetype:tsv | ext:xml) site:.gov.au
The first result is something from stored at New South Wales Ministry of Health. It’s labelled “env_airaqi.csv”. Further inspection reveals that it provides samples from the original data source that we could only access via a web page. Bingo!
A reminder about copyright
Remember, you probably shouldn’t be distributing the files that you find. There’s the possibility that you will be infringing copyright. Stick to publishing the analysis or visualisations the data. Those are your creative works. They don’t count as derived works. Copyright protects the expression of facts, not the facts themselves.
filetype:csvis the most likely way to get raw data quickly
inurl:csvwill reveal even more sources, but will return false positives
site:.govt.ukrestricts the results to websites from the British government
ext:xmlreturns formats that are not indexed by filetype operator
Update: I have created a scraper that provides much of the Sydney air quality dataset in raw form.